The growing share of renewable energy sources leads to wider load fluctuations in power grids, necessitating new concepts and ways to avoid overload. What is needed is a flexible smart grid able to adjust to the fluctuations in the production and the consumption of electricity. Here, the GreenCom project focused on regional smart grid solutions and has implemented a realistic test environment. On the Danish island Fur the GreenCom team worked with the local grid operator to install the “Smart Energy Monitoring and Control System” in 29 homes. The system can capture, aggregate and analyze, almost in real-time, data on devices, sensors, actuator and smart meters in individual homes. Heat pumps, photovoltaic systems and batteries are attached to the system, but also the smart-home installations built by Fraunhofer FIT.
The data analysis provides consumption data for different types of devices and locations as well as short-term forecasts (for up to 4 hours). This allows planning load-balancing measures. Large-scale power consumers in the homes are switched on at different times to avoid peak loads in the grid.
The forecasts and consumption data collected in the project were also used to analyze existing business models and develop new ones. The latter may feature a novel player in the market, which we call “aggregator”. Aggregators offer heating as a service: Homeowners allow their heat pumps to be controlled remotely and in exchange pay less for heating their homes. The contracts specify an acceptable temperate range. Thus the aggregator has some flexibility in reacting to fluctuating electricity supply and can sell this flexibility to the grid operator. This might be a model for controlling the electricity consumption of residential houses in the future. The owners would only have to accept that the heat pump is under external control, without making any compromises in terms of heating comfort or usage pattern, as heat pumps do not have to work continuously and can be controlled remotely without any negative effects on the people living in the house.